A�A�A�A�A�A�A�A�A�A�A�A�A�A�A�A�A�A�A�A�A�A�A�A�A�A�A�By :A� Nyoto Santoso ( Indonesian Mangrove Focal Point)A�A�A�A�A�A�A�A�A�


The sustainable management and development of Mangrove ecosystem in the SCS Demo-site of Batu Ampar is to maintain the sustainability of the mangrove forest in the area as in accordance to the existing condition, since the status is still in the natural stage as stated in the environmental status which is in-line to the guidelines of sustainable development Principles in order to support the local community as related to their daily life.

The environmental development which is conducted is covering various efforts among others:

  1. The Development of the Environmental Database and other related Socio-economic systems (GIS Database, the result of field study on habitats and land-uses). The inventory of floraa�� fauna, The inventory of uses and the economic valuation of mangrove forest, the development of silvi-culture and its environmental management (ISO 14000) in the mangrove forest area of Batu Ampar, The conflict resolution of mangrove resources uses and their management, includingA� the preparation and compromising of the mangrove management action plans.
  2. The development of business opportunities preparation to support the overall implementation of Management Plan through: the identification of alternative livelihood income, the identification of alternative current uses, the sustainable management of mangrove charcoal, and the increase of household income including the community based mangrove management.
  3. Training, Education and Public Awareness (Training, Education and Development Implementation of a educational Program and environmental awareness), establishment and the use of an environmental information center for mangrove sustainability uses, including the establishment and publication website for the demo-site.
  4. The facilitation of a development and agreement on the rules and regulations of mangrove management at the local level.


  1. Project Achievement
  2. Establishment of a Multi-sector Stakeholders Management Board
  3. The inter-sectors coordination between governmental agencies at the local level and the central level should be stimulated.
  4. The existence of the integration between the demosite objective and the Local Development Plan (the Spatial Planning of the Province and Districts) should be taken into consideration, among others: the development of mangrove coastal potencies in Batu Ampar in view of: agriculture, fisheries, and economic business alternatives which are productive and environmental friendly.
  5. The temporarily report should be compiled by the Management Board which is coordinated by the environmental Impact Management Agency or Bapedalda of West Kalimantan Province.
  6. The monthly meeting of the project Management Board
  7. The meeting with the Private Sectors
  8. The meeting with the Community Groups, Community Leaders and Village Leaders


  1. The Development of Environmental Basic Data and the Socio-economy of Mangrove in Batu Ampar Area as a support system in the consideration of the Policy Management should be socialized:
  2. The development of a GIS/ Geographic Information System based on the data, including the provision of related Software and Hardware; and Citra Land-Sat together with the analysis should be taken care. Aside of that also to prepare also a baseline A�GIS map of habitat distribution and establish GIS database and distribute initial habitat maps.
  3. The field Survey of Habitat and Land Use (in the form of a Report to create a Map with current data. The Maps which are already existed, are: Administration Maps, The Map of Demo-site limitations, The Map of Land Status, The Map of Land-systems, The Map of land-uses, The Map of Forest Concession, Land Cover 2002, Land Cover 2005, Land Cover 2006, Land Cover 2007, The Map ofA� JermalA� Distribution, and the Map of Kepah and Alea��ale Distribution and the Map of Charcoal Kiln Distribution.
  4. The Inventory of Flora and fauna in the Mangrove Demo-site of Batu Ampar, among others: the Biodiversity of types on mangrove flora 50 species, Mammals 11 species, Birds 57 species, Reptiles 10 species, Phyto-plankton 37 species, Zooplankton 20 species, Benthos 30 species, Mollusk 13 species, Crustacean 23 species, and Fishes 64 species. The potency of mangrove forest standings averagely 180 m3/ha; and the Potency of mangrove biomass averagely 262,86 ton/ha. The Inventory results have already been reported in the Publication entitled a�?Flora and Fauna Inventories at Batu Ampar Demosite, Pontianak District, West Kalimantana�?. Publication ISBN No. 978-979-3667-16-4 year 2007, and are provided in 2 Languages (English and Indonesia),
  5. The Inventory of mangrove resources use at the current situation and the economic valuation of the mangrove resources use, with the Total Economic Valuation of Rp. 107,47 billion /year. The Study results have been already compiled entitled a�?Inventory of current uses and economic values of mangrove resourcesa�?, with the registration number of Publication ISBN 978-979-3667-16-4 of year 2007. The Reports are provided in 2 Languages (English and Indonesia).
  6. The development of silvi-culture system of the mangrove forest and the implementation.
  7. The resolution of management conflict in the use of mangrove forest resources is already conducted through discussion with the key stakeholders and related agencies, including the community and private enterprises. The draft report is still in the socialization process to the stakeholders.


  1. The Activities in the Framework of Alternative Business Development
  2. The Identification of 13 types of business alternatives and opportunities based on the use of non-wood products is already conducted and visits to other locations in Java to increase the knowledge on the related topic have been taken place. The Business Alternative which are potential to be developed are among others: mangrove charcoal, shell coconut charcoal, red/brown sugar, banana jam, furnace, fishpond, fish net, crab catch, soft shell crab, jermal/fish-trap, belat, trawl/fish-trap and coffee. The alternative businesses which are feasible enough to be developed are: Banana Jam, Brown/Red Sugar, Coconut Sugar and Coconut shell Charcoal..
  3. Those alternative businesses are capable to increase the community income and support the mangrove conservation businesses which are related to mangrove conservational aspects such as: the production of coconut skin /shell charcoal, fish-net culture (grouper), crab molting, production of mangrove charcoal which is environmental friendly.
  4. The development of leban (Vitex sp.) agriculture as an alternative for the production of raw material for the making of mangrove charcoal. The size of Leban plantation is 15 ha.
  5. The development of Keramba /floating Fish a��trap in the village of Batu Ampar and the crab molting business in the Village of Nipah Panjang through a mechanism of A�revolving fund.


  1. The Activities as Related to Training, Education and Public Awareness
  2. The training on environmental education for students of the lower Schools, Training in the quality increase of mangrove charcoal and training in fixing of coconut skin charcoal, fish-pond culture with environmental consideration, mangroveA�A�A� A�A�ecosystem management, Inventory technique of mangrove resources for the local community, local NGOa��s including Managers, Field Staffs which is already taken place.
  3. The development and implementation of the educational program and public awareness through the activities of collection and compilation of data, Information, documentation, specimen, and photo collection, production of posters and brochures.
  4. Distribution of posters and brochures to the community through the educational activities and environmental awareness.
  5. Publication of study results through printing and electronic mediaa��s
  6. The establishment of an Information Center for mangrove utilization while the finalization process is taken place in the University of Tanjung Pura in Pontianak.
  7. The establishment and publication of a Website for Batu Ampar Demosite is already been conducted with the initial of:
  1. The Activities of Compilation of the Draft of Local level Regulation on Mangrove Management in Batu Ampar, which are covering:
  2. The stakeholders partnership in the compilation of the Mangrove Management Plan of Batu Ampar which is already conducted jointly by parties (Local Government, Private sector, NGOa��s, Private Companies and the Community).
  3. The Mangrove Management Plan of Batu Ampar, The Plan of Coastal Management in the coastal village of Nipah Panjang, which is already compiled and is in final stage of the process and to be socialized to the Stakeholders is already approved by the Local Government.
  4. The review and evaluation of the rules and regulations as related to Communitya��Based of mangrove ecosystem management, activities as related to the community success opportunities in sustainable development, the community limitation as related to mangrove management, facilitation of the framework in community – based management for mangrove aspects, and the finalization of the draft on sustainable mangrove management.
  1. The Conduct of Echo-seminar and Socialization of the Mangrove SAP

The Echo-seminar has been conducted during 3-5 March 2008 which is been participatedA�A� by 50 personnel from the Government, NGOa��s, Universities and the Community. Aside of that the socialization of the SCS Strategic Action Plan have also been conducted in order to get inputs to it.

  1. Lesson Learnt of The Implementation Activities in the Batu Ampar Demosite:
  2. The socio-economic database, the use of mangrove resources and the development Plan of the of the alternative livelihood is very much needed to support the sustainable management
  3. The training and enhancement of educational aspects are very much needed in the development of the alternative livelihood
  4. The strengthening of the Institutional aspects and the mechanism of management as related to the coconut skin charcoal in support of the production
  5. The enhancement of the quality and the sustainable production and the market opportunity are very much needed in the support of the development of the Alternative Livelihood
  6. Detail activities as related to lesson learnt in the development of Batu Ampar Mangrove Demo-site :
  • The production of coconut skin /shell charcoal in the villages of Nipah Panjang and A�Teluk Nibung is 722.39 ton/year and is the resource for the daily income ofA� 741 households.
  • The Increase of House-holds daily income is from Rp 503,300.76/household/ month to Rp 914,552.76/households/month or 55%.
  • The use of renewable energy of coconut skin charcoal which could change or substitute the consumption of kerosene in the amount of 399 Liter/household /year
  • The decrease of mangrove cuttings of 78 ha per year
  • The increase of the fishermen income as related to the crab-catch which is resulting in a positive impact on mangrove conservation.
  • The increase in the mangrove size in Batu Ampar area of 383.44 hectares during 2006 up to 2007.
  • The use of mangrove charcoal as raw material for cooking in the villages of Nipah Panjang and Teluk Nibung which are experiencing a decrease of A�45% (from A�48.15% to A�5.56%) and is changed by the coconut skin charcoal. This case is also indirectly supported by the use of furnace for a cooking tool, where 100% of the communities are using furnaces, whether it is charcoal furnace as well as yard wood furnace.
  • Other outputs achieved are: rehabilitation of environmental sanitation to anticipate the seawater intrusion by the establishment of 11 deep wells and the sanitation system of bathing, washing and toilet or the sanitation system.
  • Plan Completion
  1. Establishment of Multi-sector, Stakeholder Management Board
  2. The monthly report of the implementation on the demosite of mangrove activities until the Final Stage.
  3. Temporary report of the Management Board.
  4. The meeting of the Management Board and local community concerning fieldtrip and dissemination of alternative livelihood development in mangrove Demosite of Batu Ampar
  5. Fieldtrip and dissemination of alternative livelihoods development in the mangrove Demosite of Batu Ampar
  1. The Development on the Environmental Mangrove Data Base and the Socio-economic aspects as the supporting system for decision making management
  2. Technical assistance in support of the GIS to evaluate changes in the mangrove ecosystem.
  3. Monitoring of land cover inA� 2008,A� andA� the DataA� overlaysA� and Publication
  4. The monitoring of flora dan fauna, the determination of Biomass of some types of mangrove in Batu Ampar until the developing allometrict equation and its publication
  5. Finalization draft of silvi-culture system in Batu Ampar and submission to local government and the development and implementation of theA� Environment Management System (ISO 14.000)
  6. Socialization of the draft resolution on the management conflict to achieve inputs for revisions.
  1. The Activities in the Framework of Development Alternative Efforts
  2. To introduce the technology on environmental friendly measures to non-timber mangrove products
  3. The development on market opportunities
  4. To provide technical support in the increase of the product quality, management and financing
  5. The development of the revolving fund in the crab molting in Nipah Panjang Village


  1. The Activities as related to Training, Education and Public Awareness
    1. The activity as related to training which is covering the post harvest technique and marketing for the management of mangrove charcoal; training for staff from private sector; student study and research; government officials and the site managers and staffs.
    2. The development activities as related to the alternative efforts which is related to the training of Agriculture for Latex, Areca nut, and Oil Palm;A� Nypa rehabilitationA� criteria and indicators of the sustainable management of the mangrove production forest.
    3. The development and implementation of programs on education and public awareness through distribution of posters and brochures, discussions with target schools, visits to schools as related to environmental education, fieldtrips and a series of meeting discussions with stakeholders.
    4. Publication of activity results through printing and electronic mediaa��s
    5. The establishment and publication of a Website for the Batu Ampar mangrove demosite which is already done with the initial entitled :


  1. E. The Activities as related to the Facilitation of the Compilation of the Draft of the Local Regulations on Mangrove Management in Batu Ampar
  2. The discussion on the community level is still to be proceeded
  3. The revision of the draft regulation.
  4. The finalization of the regulation
  5. The facilitation of the legal aspect of the charcoal kiln and the agreement in the limitation of the amount of charcoal kilns
  6. Socialization of the government rules and regulations in the management of mangrove forest production
  7. The facilitation of mangrove forest production management legalization by panther cooperation
  8. Finalization of criteria and indicators on the sustainable management of the mangrove production forest

Management Plan Improvement

  1. Arrangement and limitation on the industrial activities in using mangrove raw materials which are conducted by the community through charcoal kiln management inventory, rule of the games in using the charcoal kiln management, legal aspect facilitation.
  2. Developing the alternative livelihoods by using of the mangrove resources (food, drinks, and handicrafts from Nypa), agriculture (Areca nut, latex and wood plantation).
  3. Nypa resources study, and Nypa rehabilitation (Nypa conversion to Rhizophora vegetation)
  4. Developing the system and capacity of sustainable management of the mangrove production forest in Batu Ampar; through compilation of the criteria and indicators, training and trial for implementation and finalization.
  1. Problems Encountered
    1. No Law Enforcement have been taken yet in the form of Mangrove Forest destructions by the new comers from the outside or sanctions for law violators.
    2. Therefore, the Awakening of their responsibilities as to maintain the Financial Aspect and carrying out Socialization of Public Awareness for Law Enforcement is of Prime Importance in this case.
    3. Permit of Mangrove Production Forest Management by the community is issued by government yet.
  1. Conclusion

The Sustainable Management and Development of the Mangrove area in Batu Ampar Demo-site is showing that the results achieved is in accordance with the program conducted on a��site , while other activities are still in the progress for finalization in due course and further to the above mentioned activities would be finalized during the Fourth Period of March A�a�� June 2008.